Founded in 1780, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences is both an honorary society that recognizes and celebrates the excellence of its members and an independent research center convening leaders from across disciplines, professions, and perspectives to address significant challenges to the common good. Academy members are selected for their record of continued professional accomplishment.
The National Academy of Sciences was established by an Act of Congress signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 to provide independent, objective advice to the nation on matters of science and technology. Members are elected to the National Academy of Sciences in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Membership is a widely accepted mark of excellence in science and is considered one of the highest honors that a scientist can receive.